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Authors: Saccorotti, G.* 
Piccinini, D.* 
Braun, T.* 
Title: Narrow-band, transient signals in Central Apennines, Italy: hints for underground fluid migration?
Issue Date: Nov-2011
Series/Report no.: 2/187(2011)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05180.x
Keywords: Fracture and flow
Earthquake source observations
Interface waves
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring 
Abstract: In this paper we investigate nature and properties of narrow-band, transient seismic signals observed by a temporary array deployed in the Val Tiberina area (central Apennines, Italy). These signals are characterized by spindle-shaped, harmonic waveforms with no clear S-wave arrivals. The first portion of the seismograms exhibits a main frequency peak centred at 4.5 Hz, while the spectrum of the slowly decaying coda is peaked at about 2 Hz. Events discrimination is performed using a matched-filtering technique, resulting in a set of 2466 detections spanning the 2010 January–March time interval. From a plane-wave-fitting procedure, we estimate the kinematic properties of signals pertaining to a cluster of similar events. The repetition of measurements over a large number of precisely aligned seismograms allows for obtaining a robust statistics of horizontal slownesses and propagation azimuths associated with the early portion of the waveforms. The P-wave arrival exhibits horizontal slownesses around 0.1 s km−1, thus suggesting waves impinging at the array almost vertically. Separately, we use traveltimes measured at a sparse network to derive independent constraints on epicentral location. Ray parameters and azimuths are calibrated using slowness measurements from a local, well-located earthquake. After this correction, the joint solution from traveltime inversion and array analysis indicates a source region spanning the 1–3 km depth interval. Considerations related to the source depth and energy, and the occurrence rate which is not related to the daily and weekly working cycles, play against a surface, artificial source. Instead, the close resemblance of these signals to those commonly observed in volcanic environments suggest a source mechanism related to the resonance of a fluid–filled fracture, likely associated with instabilities in the flux of pressurized CO2.
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