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Authors: Mazzarini, F.* 
Musumeci, G.* 
Cruden, A. R.* 
Title: Vein development during folding in the upper brittle crust: The case of tourmaline-rich veins of eastern Elba Island, northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy
Issue Date: Oct-2011
Series/Report no.: 10/33(2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsg.2011.07.001
Keywords: Thermal aureole
Upper crust
Fluid circulation
Northern Apennines
Elba Island
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.02. Geodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
Abstract: Detailed structural analysis of tourmaline-rich veins hosted in the contact aureole of the ∼6 Ma Porto Azzurro granite in southeastern Elba Island, northern Tyrrhenian Sea is presented. Using geometric features of the veins, the physical conditions at the time of vein formation are estimated, namely the stress ratio (Φ = (σ2 − σ3)/(σ1 − σ3)), driving stress ratio (R′ = (Pf − σ3)/(σ1 − σ3)) and fluid overpressure (ΔPo = Pf − σ3). Two vein sets (A veins and B veins) have been recognized based on orientation and thickness distributions and infilling material. Analysis of vein pole distributions indicates Φ = 0.57 and R′ = 0.24 for the A veins and Φ = 0.58 and R′ = 0.47 for the B veins, and fluid pressures less than the intermediate stress magnitude. Analysis of geometric features of the veins gives estimated fluid overpressures of between ∼16 MPa (A veins) and ∼32 MPa (B veins). We propose a model for the tectonic environment of vein development, in which formation of secondary permeability in the deforming thermal aureole of the Porto Azzurro pluton was controlled by ongoing development of fracture systems in the hinge zone of a regional NNW–SSE trending fold that favored transport and localization of hydrothermal fluids.
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