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Authors: Massa, M.* 
Lovati, S.* 
Marzorati, S.* 
Augliera, P.* 
Title: Seismic Ground Motion Amplifications Estimated by Means of Spectral Ratio Techniques: Examples for Different Geological and Morphological Settings
Issue Date: Dec-2011
ISBN: 978-953-307-468-9
Keywords: spectral ratio
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
Abstract: One of the most important issue in seismic hazard and microzonation studies is the evaluation of local site response (i.e. the tendency of a site to experience during an earthquake greater or lower levels of ground shacking with respect to another). In general site effects reflect all modifications (in amplitude, frequency content and duration) of a wave-field produced by a seismic source during the propagation near the surface, due to particular geologic (stratigraphy and morphology), geotechnical (mechanical properties of deposits) and physical (e.g. coupling of incident, diffracted and reflected seismic waves) conditions of a particular site. Actually local seismic amplification represents one of the main factors responsible for building damage during earthquakes: this statement is supported by well documented evidences of structural damages during past moderate to high energy events occurred both in Italy (e.g. 23th November 1980, Mw 6.9, Irpinia earthquake, Faccioli, 1986; 26th September 1997, Mw 6.0, Umbria-Marche earthquake, Caserta et al., 2000; the 31th October 2002, Mw 5.7, Molise earthquake, Strollo et al., 2007; 6th April 2009, Mw 6.3, L’Aquila earthquake, Cultrera et al., 2009) and in other worldwide countries (e.g. 3rd March 1985, Mw 7.8, Chile earthquake, Celebi, 1987; 17th August 1999, Mw 7.6, Izmit earthquake, Sadik Bakir et al., 2002). For this reason the site effects evaluation, performed by experimental methods but also through numerical simulations, has attracted the attention of engineering seismology and earthquake engineering communities. Of consequence, in the last decade many experiments were performed in correspondence of different setting such as alluvial basins (Parolai et al., 2001 and 2004; Ferretti et al., 2007; Massa et al., 2009; Bindi et al., 2009) or topographies (e.g. Pischiutta et al., 2010; Massa et al., 2010; Buech et al., 2010; Marzorati et al., 2011; Lovati et al., 2011). The present work has the aim to evaluate the capabilities of the most common passive methods at present used in seismology to evaluate the site response: HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio technique on seismic noise, Nakamura, 1989, or earthquakes, Lermo & Chavez Garcia, 1993) and SSR (Standard Spectral Ratio, Borcherdt, 1970).
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