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Authors: Quattrocchi, F.* 
Mele, G.* 
Cantucci, B.* 
Procesi, M.* 
Sciarra, A.* 
Nardi, S.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Densely populated settings: the challenge of siting geological facilities for deep geothermics, CO2 and natural gas storage, and radioactive waste disposal Underground Coexistence and Synergies for a Sound Energy Mix in the Post-Kyoto Era
Issue Date: Dec-2011
Series/Report no.: 12/(2011)
Keywords: deep geothermics
CO2 and natural gas storage
radioactive waste disposal
underground coexistence
energy mix
Subject Classification05. General::05.09. Miscellaneous::05.09.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: The abstracts herein – collected for the 34th Course of the International School of Geophysics, held in Erice, Italy (“Ettore Majorana” Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, 25-30 September, 2010) – focus on geophysical, geological and geochemical methods applied to the planning of the soundest energy mix in densely populated countries, where the coexistence of different technologies requires unique underground facilities and resources. In the framework of IEA and EU programmes, where the concepts of “smart grids” and “smart cities” are prevailing, we rather propose the concept of “smart region” planning the use of both underground and surface areas in a new social-energetic paradigm of “zero kilometer” life. The coexistence of geological storage of CO2 and natural gas, geothermics and, possibly, nuclear waste temporary storage (near surface or geological) is today necessary owing to the progressive decrease of space and resources. In this context, the following technologies turn out to be very important: renewables (geothermal energy), nuclear power, clean coal technologies via CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS), Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM), non-conventional gas exploitation, and seasonal storage of natural gas (also for strategic reserves). These technologies have been recently emphasized in Italy by the Ministry of Economic Development and by the Ministry of the Environment and Territory, as well as by research institutions such as INGV and CNR. Key topics addressed during the Course were: • Geological storage and disposal: assessment of available volume and structures. • Subsurface geological resources: management of potential conflicts among various technologies. • Geological site characterization and risk assessment for policy makers and regulators: the role of the energy industry. • New high tech frontiers for geothermal power production. • New concepts in nuclear waste disposal. • Numerical simulation software for geothermal exploration, geological storage and nuclear waste disposal. • Sharing subsurface data coming from oil & gas and geothermal exploration. • High resolution characterization of shallow aquifers and reservoirs: multi-strata exploitation by different energy technologies. • Case histories and natural analogues: “learning by doing” and “acceptable risk” concepts. The 34th Course of the International School of Geophysics is dedicated to students and young contract researchers starting their carreers in a period of energetic-environmental global crisis. Although their scientific contribution is of high quality, they are usually underpaid in public research institutions with respect to volatile staff of some international organizations who, making use of the results of governmentfunded research, make final decisions on low-carbon energy technologies.
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