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Authors: Misiti, V.* 
Vetere, F.* 
Freda, C.* 
Scarlato, P.* 
Behrens, H.* 
Mangiacapra, A.* 
Dingwell, D. B.* 
Title: A general viscosity model of Campi Flegrei (Italy) melts
Journal: Chemical Geology 
Series/Report no.: 1-2/ 290 (2011)
Issue Date: 2011
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.08.010
Keywords: viscosity
concentric cylinder
falling sphere
Campi Flegrei
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.02. Experimental volcanism 
Abstract: Viscosities of shoshonitic and latitic melts, relevant to the Campi Flegrei caldera magmas, have been experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure and 0.5 GPa, temperatures between 840 K and 1870 K, and H2O contents from 0.02 to 3.30 wt%. The concentric cylinder technique was employed at atmospheric pressure to determine viscosity of nominally anhydrous melts in the viscosity range of 101.5 - 103 Pa·s. The micropenetration technique was used to determine the viscosity of hydrous and anhydrous melts at atmospheric pressure in the high viscosity range (1010 Pa·s). Falling sphere experiments were performed at 0.5 GPa in the low viscosity range (from 100.35 to 102.79 Pa·s) in order to obtain viscosity data of anhydrous and hydrous melts. The combination of data obtained from the three different techniques adopted permits a general description of viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using the following modified VFT equation: where η is the viscosity in Pa·s, T the temperature in K, w the H2O content in wt%, and a, b, c, d, e, g are the VFT parameters. This model reproduces the experimental data (95 measurements) with a 1σ standard deviation of 0.19 and 0.22 log units for shoshonite and latite, respectively. The proposed model has been applied also to a more evolved composition (trachyte) from the same area in order to create a general model applicable to the whole compositional range of Campi Flegrei products. Moreover, speed data have been used to constrain the ascent velocity of latitic, shoshonitic, and trachytic melts within dikes. Using petrological data and volcanological information (geometrical parameters of the eruptive fissure and depth of magma storage), we estimate a time scale for the ascent of melt from 9 km to 4 km depth (where deep and shallow reservoirs, respectively, are located) in the order of few minutes. Such a rapid ascent should be taken into account for the hazard assessment in the Campi Flegrei area.
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