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Authors: Tamburello, G.* 
McGonigle, A. J. S.* 
Kantzas, E. P.* 
Aiuppa, A.* 
Title: Recent advances in ground-based ultraviolet remote sensing of volcanic SO2 fluxes
Issue Date: 2011
Series/Report no.: 2/54(2011)
DOI: 10.4401/ag-5179
Keywords: Volcanology
Volcanic Gases
Volcano monitoring
Volcanic effects upon atmosphere
Atmospheric instruments and techniques
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
Abstract: Measurements of volcanic SO2 emission rates have been the mainstay of remote-sensing volcanic gas geochemistry for almost four decades, and they have contributed significantly to our understanding of volcanic systems and their impact upon the atmosphere. The last ten years have brought stepchange improvements in the instrumentation applied to these observations, which began with the application of miniature ultraviolet spectrometers that were deployed in scanning and traverse configurations, with differential optical absorption spectroscopy evaluation routines. This study catalogs the more recent empirical developments, including: ultraviolet cameras; wideangle field-of-view differential optical absorption spectroscopy systems; advances in scanning operations, including tomography; and improved understanding of errors, in particular concerning radiative transfer. Furthermore, the outcomes of field deployments of sensors during the last decade are documented, with respect to improving our understanding of volcanic dynamics and degassing into the atmosphere.
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