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Authors: Harris, A. J. L.* 
Steffke, A.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Spampinato, L.* 
Title: Thirty years of satellite‐derived lava discharge rates at Etna: Implications for steady volumetric output
Issue Date: 9-Aug-2011
Series/Report no.: /116 (2011)
DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008237
Keywords: Etna
time averaged effusion rate
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: We present a 30 year long data set of satellite‐derived time‐averaged lava discharge rates (TADR) for Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy), spanning 1980–2010 and comprising 1792 measurements during 23 eruptions. We use this to classify eruptions on the basis of magnitude and intensity, as well as the shape of the TADR time series which characterizes each effusive event. We find that while 1983–1993 was characterized by less frequent but longer‐duration effusive eruptions at lower TADRs, 2000–2010 was characterized by more frequent eruptions of shorter duration and higher TADRs. However, roughly the same lava volume was erupted during both of these 11 year long periods, so that the volumetric output was linear over the entire 30 year period, increasing at a rate of 0.8 m3 s−1 between 1980 and 2010. The cumulative volume record can be extended back in time using data available in the literature. This allows us to assess Etna’s output history over 5 centuries and to place the current trend in historical context. We find that output has been stable at this rate since 1971. At this time, the output rate changed from a low discharge rate phase, which had characterized the period 1759 to 1970, to a high discharge rate phase. This new phase had the same output rate as the high discharge rate phase that characterized the period 1610–1669. The 1610–1669 phase ended with the most voluminous eruption of historic times.
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