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Authors: Perrone, L.* 
Mikhailov, A. V.* 
Korsunova, L. P.* 
Title: FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC E region observations and daytime foE at middle latitudes
Issue Date: 8-Jun-2011
Series/Report no.: /116 (2011)
DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016411
Keywords: mid-latitude ionosphere
sporadic E layer
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.02. Dynamics 
Abstract: Ionosonde observations at Rome and Gibilmanna (Sicily) for some months of 2006–2007 were analyzed in the connection with recent COSMIC NmE results. Italy was completely located in the NmE enhanced zone according to COSMIC observations for the periods in question. COSMIC‐observed NmE values in the NmE enhanced zone do not coincide with NmE scaled from ionograms in accordance with the URSI Recommendations, but the IRI model correctly describes monthly median NmE contrary to the Chu et al. (2009) conclusion. Three month averaged COSMIC NmE values turn out to be close to monthly median NmE corresponding to the blanketing frequency fbEs. A conclusion is made that sporadic E practically permanently existing during daytime hours in summer strongly contributes to NmE observed by COSMIC. Possible reasons for the occurrence of the NmE enhanced zones at middle latitudes are discussed.
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