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Authors: Sartini, L.* 
Simeone, F.* 
Pani, P.* 
Lo Bue, N.* 
Marinaro, G.* 
Grubich, A.* 
Lobko, A.* 
Etiope, G.* 
Capone, A.* 
Favali, P.* 
Gasparoni, F.* 
Bruni, F.* 
Title: GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements
Issue Date: Jan-2011
Series/Report no.: /626-627(2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.248
Keywords: NaI(Tl) sensor
Underwater spectrometer
Marine radioactivity
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.04. Measurements and monitoring 
05. General::05.04. Instrumentation and techniques of general interest::05.04.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by 40K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., 238U,232Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., 137Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.
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