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Authors: Pierdicca, N.* 
Chini, M.* 
Pulvirenti, L.* 
Macina, F.* 
Title: Integrating physical and topographic information into a fuzzy scheme to map flooded area by SAR
Issue Date: Jul-2008
Series/Report no.: /8 (2008)
DOI: 10.3390/s8074151
Keywords: SAR
Data fusion
Subject Classification05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.01. Data processing 
Abstract: A flood mapping procedure based on a fuzzy sets theory has been developed. The method is based on the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements with additional data on the inundated area, such as a land cover map and a digital elevation model (DEM). The information on land cover has allowed us to account for both specular reflection, typical of open water, and double bounce backscattering, typical of forested and urban areas. DEM has been exploited to include simple hydraulic considerations on the dependence of inundation probability on surface characteristics. Contextual information has been taken into account too. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a flood occurred in Italy on November 1994. A pair of ERS-1 images, collected before and after (three days later) the flood, has been used. The results have been compared with the data provided by a ground survey carried out when the flood reached its maximum extension. Despite the temporal mismatch between the survey and the post-inundation SAR image, the comparison has yielded encouraging results, with the 87% of the pixels correctly classified as inundated.
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