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Authors: Spampinato, L.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras
Issue Date: Apr-2011
Series/Report no.: /106 (2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.003
Keywords: Remote sensing
Infrared camera
Active volcano surveillance
Thermal imaging
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.08. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: Volcanic eruptions are commonly preceded, accompanied, and followed by variations of a number of detectable geophysical and geochemical manifestations. Many remote sensing techniques have been applied to tracking anomalies and eruptive precursors, and monitoring ongoing volcanic eruptions, offering obvious advantages over in situ techniques especially during hazardous activity. While spaceborne instruments provide a distinct advantage for collecting data remotely in this regard, they still cannot match the spatial detail or time resolution achievable using portable imagers on the ground or aircraft. Hand-held infrared camera technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, resulting in a proliferation of commercially available instruments, such that volcano observatories are increasingly implementing them in monitoring efforts. Improved thermal surveillance of active volcanoes has not only enhanced hazard assessment but it has contributed substantially to understanding a variety of volcanic processes. Drawing on over a decade of operational volcano surveillance in Italy, we provide here a critical review of the application of infrared thermal cameras to volcano monitoring. Following a summary of key physical principles, instrument capabilities, and the practicalities and methods of data collection, we discuss the types of information that can be retrieved from thermal imagery and what they have contributed to hazard assessment and risk management, and to physical volcanology. With continued developments in thermal imager technology and lower instrument costs, there will be increasing opportunity to gather valuable observations of volcanoes. It is thus timely to review the state of the art and we hope thereby to stimulate further research and innovation in this area.
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