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Authors: Danecek, P.* 
Stich, D.* 
Morelli, A.* 
Title: Images of the Iberian Lithosphere from One Local Earthquake
Issue Date: 2010
DOI: 10.1785/0120100160
Keywords: Adjoint method
Coda waves
Surface-wave reflections
Radiation pattern
Lateral heterogeneity
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.04. Plate boundaries, motion, and tectonics 
05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.01. Data processing 
05. General::05.06. Methods::05.06.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: On 12 August 2007, a magnitude Mw 4.7 intraplate earthquake occurred near the center of the Iberian Peninsula, an area characterized by comparably simple crustal structure within the complex Iberia-Maghreb plate boundary zone, and characterized by complete azimuthal coverage with seismic broadband stations. We analyze regional intermediate-period (20s to 50s) coda waveforms for this earthquake. They contain energy representing late-arriving surface waves that have been reflected laterally at lithospheric heterogeneities in or around Iberia, but complexity of the coda waveforms hampers a direct interpretation. We use coda recordings as source for a back-propagating adjoint wave field and compute 3D Born sensitivity kernels for the dependence of least squares waveform misfits of coda waves on wave speed variations. We hereby image the origin of single scattering recorded in the coda. Misfit kernels for P- and S-wave velocity show azimuth-dependent intensity variation as a result of source radiation, and an appropriate compensation significantly improves imaging quality, thereby revealing several clear lineaments. These are interpreted as surface-wave reflectors due to deep-rooted heterogeneity such as terrain boundaries or Moho topography, demonstrating the ability of the approach to unravel complex waveforms, and providing a new point of view on regional lithospheric structure.
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