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Authors: Saccorotti, G.* 
Piccinini, D.* 
Cauchie, L.* 
Fiori, I.* 
Title: Seismic Noise by Wind Farms: A Case Study from the VIRGO Gravitational Wave Observatory, Italy.
Issue Date: 2010
Keywords: Seismic Noise
site effects
Wave propagation
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis 
Abstract: We present analyses of the noise wavefield in the vicinity of VIRGO, the Italy-France gravitational wave observatory located close to Pisa, Italy, with special reference to the vibrations induced by a nearby wind park. The spectral contribution of the wind turbines is investigated using (i) on-site measurements, (ii) correlation of spectral amplitudes with wind speed, (iii) directional properties determined via multichannel measurements, and (iv) attenuation of signal amplitude with distance. Among the different spectral peaks thus discriminated, the one at frequency 1.7 Hz has associated the greatest power, and under particular conditions it can be observed at distances as large as 11 km from the wind park. The spatial decay of amplitudes exhibits a complicate pattern, that we interpret in terms of the combination of direct surface waves and body waves refracted at a deep (_ 800 m) interface between the plio-pleistocenic marine, fluvial and lacustrine sediments and the Miocene carbonate basement. We develop a model for wave attenuation which allows determining the amplitude of the radiation from individual turbines, which is estimated on the order of 300-400 μms−119 /pHz for wind speeds over the 8-14 m/s range. On the base of this model, we then develop a predictive relationship for assessing the possible impact of future, project wind farms.
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