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Authors: Chiodini, G.* 
Caliro, S.* 
Cardellini, C.* 
Avino, R.* 
Minopoli, C.* 
Granieri, D.* 
Title: Long Time Series Of Fumarolic Compositions At Volcanoes: The Key To Understand The Activity Of Quiescent Volcanoes
Issue Date: 31-May-2010
Keywords: fumarolic composition
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.11. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Long time series of fumarolic chemical and isotopic compositions at Campi Flegrei, Vulcano, Panarea, Nisyros and Mammoth volcanoes highlight the occurrence of mixing processes among magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. At Campi Flegrei temperatures of about 360°C of the hydrothermal system are inferred by chemical and isotopic geoindicators. These high temperatures are representative of a deep zone where magmatic gases mix with hydrothermal liquids forming the gas plume feeding the fumaroles. Similar mixing processes between magmatic fluids and a hydrothermal component of marine origin have been recognized at Vulcano high temperature fumaroles. In both the system a typical ‘andesitic’ water type composition and high CO2 contents characterizes the magmatic component. Our hypothesis is that pulsing injections of these CO2- rich magmatic fluids at the bottom of the hydrothermal systems trigger the bradyseismic crises, periodically affecting Campi Flegrei, and the periodical volcanic unrest periods of Vulcano. At Campi Flegrei a strong increase of the fraction of the magmatic component marked the bradyseismic crisis (seismicity and ground uplift) of 1982-84 and four minor episodes occurred in 1989, 1994 and 2000 and 2006. Increases of the magmatic component in the fumaroles of Vulcano were recorded in 1979-1981, 1985, 1988, 1996, 2004 and 2005 concurrently with anomalous seismic activity. Physicalnumerical simulations of the injection of hot, CO2 rich fluids at the base of a hydrothermal system, asses the physical feasibility the process. Ground deformations, gravitational anomalies and seismic crisis can be well explained by the complex fluid dynamic processes caused by magma degassing episodes. Sporadic data on the fumaroles of other volcanoes, for example Panarea, Nisyros (Greece), Mammoth (California), suggest that magma degassing episodes frequently occur in dormant volcanoes causing volcanic unrest processes not necessarily linked to magma movement but rather to pulsating degassing processes from deep pressurized, possibly stationary, magma bodies.
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