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Authors: De’ Michieli Vitturi, M.* 
Neri, A.* 
Esposti Ongaro, T.* 
Lo Savio, S.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Lagrangian modeling of large volcanic particles: Application to Vulcanian explosions
Issue Date: 20-Aug-2010
Series/Report no.: /115(2010)
DOI: 10.1029/2009JB007111
Keywords: ballistic dynamics
Lagrangian modeling
explosive volcanism
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.05. Algorithms and implementation 
Abstract: A new 2D/3D Lagrangian particle model (named LPAC) for the dynamics of clasts ejected during explosive eruptions is presented. The novelty of the model lies in the one-way coupling of the carrier flow field, given by a Eulerian multiphase flow code, and the particles. The model is based on a simplification of the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation, expressing the Lagrangian equation of a particle as the sum of the forces exerted on it along its trajectory. It is assumed that particles are non-interacting and do not affect the background carrier flow and that the drag coefficient is constant. The model was applied to large clasts produced by Vulcanian explosions, in particular those occurring in August 1997 at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies, UK). Simulation results allowed parametric studies as well as semi-quantitative comparisons between modeling results and field evidence. Major results include (1) the carrier flow was found to play a fundamental role even for meter-sized particles—a 1 m diameter block is predicted to reach a distance that is about 70% greater than that predicted without the effect of the carrier flow (assuming the same initial velocity), (2) assumption of the initial velocity of the particle was dropped thanks to the description of both the acceleration and deceleration phases along the particle trajectory, (3) by adopting experimentally based drag coefficients, large particles were able to reach greater distances with respect to smaller particles consistently with field observations and (4) the initial depth of the particle in the conduit was found to mainly influence the ejection velocity while the initial radial position with respect to the conduit axis was found to play a major role on the distance reached by the particle.
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