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Authors: Di Toro, G.* 
Niemeijer, A.* 
Tripoli, A.* 
Nielsen, S.* 
Di Felice, F.* 
Scarlato, P.* 
Spada, G.* 
Alessandroni, R.* 
Romeo, G.* 
Di Stefano, G.* 
Smith, S.* 
Sapgnuolo, E.* 
Mariano, S.* 
Title: From field geology to earthquake simulation: a new state-of-the-art tool to investigate rock friction during the seismic cycle (SHIVA)
Issue Date: 2010
Keywords: friction
high velocity friction experiments
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
Abstract: Despite considerable effort over the past several decades, the mechanics of earthquake rupture remains largely unknown. Moderate- to large-magnitude earthquakes nucleate at 7–15 km depth and most information is retrieved from seismology, but information related to the physico-chemical processes active during rupture propagation is below the resolution of this method. An alternative approach includes the investigation of exhumed faults, such as those described here from the Adamello Massif (Italian Alps), and the use of rock deformation apparatus capable of reproducing earthquake deformation conditions in the laboratory. The analysis of field and microstructural/mineralogical/geo- chemical data retrieved from the large glacier-polished exposures of the Adamello (Gole Larghe Fault) provides information on earthquake source parameters, including the coseismic slip, the rupture directivity and velocity, the dynamic friction and earthquake energy budgets. Some of this information (e.g., the evolution of the friction coefficient with slip) can be tested in the laboratory with the recently installed Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA). SHIVA uses two brushless engines (max power 280 kW) and an air actuator in a rotary shear configuration (nominally infinite displacement) to slide solid or hollow rock cylinders (40/50 mm int/ext diameter) at: (1) slip rates ranging from 10 lm s-1 up to 9 m s-1; (2) accelerations up to 80 m s-2; and (3) normal stresses up to 50 MPa. In comparison to existing high-speed friction machines, this apparatus extends the range of sliding velocities, normal stresses and sample size. In particular, SHIVA has been specifically designed to reproduce slip velocities and accelerations that occur during earthquakes. The characterization of rock frictional behavior under these conditions, plus the comparison with natural fault products, is expected to provide important insights into the mechanics of earthquakes.
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