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Authors: Honary, Farideh*
Marple, Steve R.*
Nielsen, Erling*
Romano, Vincenzo* 
Spogli, Luca* 
Ulich, Thomas*
Hapgood, Mike A.*
Janhunen, Pekka*
Johansson, Jonny*
Title: Mars Riometer System
Issue Date: 19-Apr-2009
Keywords: Riometer
Mars ionosphere
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.06. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: A riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) measures the intensity of cosmic radio noise at the surface of a planet. When an electromagnetic wave passes through the ionosphere collisions between charged particles (usually electrons) and neutral gases remove energy from the wave. By measuring the received signal intensity at the planet's surface and comparing it to the expected value (the quietday curve) a riometer can deduce the absorption (attenuation) of the trans-ionospheric signal. Thus the absorption measurements provide an indication of ionisation changes occurring in the ionosphere. To avoid the need for orbiting sounders riometers use the cosmic noise background as a signal source. Earth-based systems are not subject to the challenging power, volume and mass restriction that would apply to a riometer for Mars. Some Earth-based riometers utilise phased-array antennas in order to provide an imaging capability.
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