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Authors: Beauducel, F.* 
De Natale, G.* 
Obrizzo, F.* 
Pingue, F.* 
Title: 3-D Modelling of Campi Flegrei Ground Deformations: Role of Caldera Boundary Discontinuities
Journal: Pure and Applied Geophysics 
Series/Report no.: 161
Publisher: Birkhauser Verlag
Issue Date: 2004
DOI: 10.1007/s00024-004-2507-4
Keywords: Campi Flegrei
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.08. Theory and Models 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Campi Flegrei is a caldera complex located west of Naples, Italy. The last eruption occurred in 1538, although the volcano has produced unrest episodes since then, involving rapid and large ground movements (up to 2 m vertical in two years), accompanied by intense seismic activity. Surface ground displacements detected by various techniques (mainly InSAR and levelling) for the 1970 to 1996 period can be modelled by a shallow point source in an elastic half-space, however the source depth is not compatible with seismic and drill hole observations, which suggest a magma chamber just below 4 km depth. This apparent paradox has been explained by the presence of boundary fractures marking the caldera collapse. We present here the first full 3-D modelling for the unrest of 1982–1985 including the effect of caldera bordering fractures and the topography. To model the presence of topography and of the complex caldera rim discontinuities, we used a mixed boundary elements method. The a priori caldera geometry is determined initially from gravimetric modelling results and refined by inversion. The presence of the caldera discontinuities allows a fit to the 1982–1985 levelling data as good as, or better than, in the continuous half-space case, with quite a different source depth which fits the actual magma chamber position as seen from seismic waves. These results show the importance of volcanic structures, and mainly of caldera collapses, in ground deformation episodes.
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