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Authors: Bemis, K.* 
Walker, J.* 
Borgia, A.* 
Turrin, B.* 
Neri, M.* 
Swisher, C.* 
Title: The growth and erosion of cinder cones in Guatemala and El Salvador: Models and statistics
Issue Date: 2010
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.11.007
Keywords: cinder cones
age dating
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: Morphologic data for 147 cinder cones in southernGuatemala andwestern El Salvador are comparedwith data from 21 the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona (USA), Cima volcanic field, California (USA), Michoácan–Guanajuato 22 volcanic field, Mexico, and the Lamongan volcanic field, East Java. The Guatemala cones have an average height of 23 110+/−50m, an average basal diameter of 660+/−230m and an average top diameter of 180+/−150m. The 24 generalmorphology of these cones can be described by their average cone angle of slope (24+/−7), average height- 25 to-radius ratio (0.33+/−0.09) and their flatness (0.24+/−0.18). Although the mean values for the Guatemalan 26 cones are similar to those for other volcanic fields (e.g., San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona; Cima volcanic field, 27 California; Michoácan–Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico; and Lamongan volcanic field, East Java), the range of 28 morphologies encompasses almost all of those observed worldwide for cinder cones. 29 Three new 40Ar/39Ar age dates are combined with 19 previously published dates for cones in Guatemala and El 30 Salvador. There is no indication that the morphologies of these cones have changed over the last 500–1000 ka. 31 Furthermore, a re-analysis of published data for other volcanic fields suggests that only in the Cima volcanic field (of 32 those studied) is there clear evidence of degradation with age. 33 Preliminary results of a numerical model of cinder cone growth are used to show that the range of morphologies 34 observed in the Guatemalan cinder cones could all be primary, that is, due to processes occurring at the time of 35 eruption.
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