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Authors: Milluzzo, V.* 
Cannata, A.* 
Alparone, S.* 
Gambino, S.* 
Hellweg, M.* 
Montalto, P.* 
Cammarata, L.* 
Diliberto, I. S.* 
Gresta, S.* 
Liotta, M.* 
Paonita, A.* 
Title: Tornillos at Vulcano: Clues to the dynamics of the hydrothermal system
Issue Date: 2010
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.09.022
Keywords: Tornillos
Vulcano Island
Hydrothermal system
Volcano seismology
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
Abstract: The number of tornillo events has recently increased at the Vulcano Island, Italy. While only 15 tornillos were recorded during 2004–2006, 584 events occurred in 2007–2008. They were located just below La Fossa Crater at depths ranging between 0.1 and 1 km b.s.l. During two intervals in 2007–2008 increases in the number of tornillos took place at the same time as temperature and geochemical anomalies were observed. The spectral content of the tornillos, generally characterized by one–two dominant spectral peaks near 6 and 10 Hz, varied over time, with changes also noted in the quality factors. The simplest source mechanism proposed for tornillos is the free eigenvibration of a fluid volume within a crack or a conduit. Based on this model, we propose a causal relationship between the temperature and geochemical anomalies and the increases in numbers of tornillos. As the amount of hydrothermal fluids increases during the anomalies, the upward flux of fluids grows. The consequent changes in the pressure, temperature and dynamics of the system of cracks and conduits result in the generation of tornillos. Based on the fluid-filled crack/conduit model, the shallow depths of the sources and the values of the quality factors, the fluid within the resonant crack/conduit was inferred to be an ash–gas or water droplet–gas mixture. Moreover, the observed variations in the wavefield can be caused by small changes in the location of the source, in the source mechanism, or in the medium in between the source and the seismic station. Finally, another peculiar feature of tornillos is the amplitude modulation that can be explained as a result of a beating phenomenon.
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