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Authors: Giudicepietro, F.* 
Orazi, M.* 
Scarpato, G.* 
Peluso, R.* 
D’Auria, L.* 
Ricciolino, P.* 
Lo Bascio, D.* 
Esposito, A. M.* 
Borriello, G.* 
Capello, M.* 
Caputo, A.* 
Buonocunto, C.* 
De Cesare, W.* 
Vilardo, G.* 
Martini, M.* 
Title: Seismological Monitoring of Mount Vesuvius (Italy): More than a Century of Observations
Journal: Seismological Research Letters 
Series/Report no.: 4/81(2010) SEISMOLOGICAL SOC AMER
Issue Date: Jul-2010
DOI: 10.1785/gssrl.81.4.625
Keywords: Seismological Monitoring
Mount Vesuvius
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.05. Historical seismology 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy) is one of the volcanoes that poses the greatest risk in the world because of its highly explosive eruptive style and its proximity to densely populated areas. The urbanization around Mt. Vesuvius began in ancient times, and the impact of eruptions on human activities has been severe. This is testified to by the ruins of Pompeii, which are covered by the products of the plinian eruption that took place in A.D. 79 (Sigurdsson et al. 1985), and more recently by the published reports of the eruptions that occurred from 1631 to 1944. For these reasons, Mt. Vesuvius was also one of the first volcanoes to be equipped with monitoring instruments. Pioneering instrumental observations began just before the second half of the 1800s, when the Vesuvius Observatory was founded in 1841 (Imbò 1949). At that time, Vesuvius was very active (Ricciardi 2009), and its effusive and explosive eruptions often caused damage to the surrounding areas. At the same time, it was a famous tourist attraction that drew travelers from all over the world (Gasparini and Musella 1991). Since the middle of the 1800s, at least 12 eruptions have occurred that have been superimposed on persistent intra-crater activity that has been characterized by Strombolian explosions and by the formation of small lava lakes. The last eruption occurred on 18 March 1944 and marked a change in the status of Mt. Vesuvius, as it entered a closed-conduit phase that persists today. Following this last eruption, a change occurred in the 1960s, as documented by an increase in the occurrence rate of earthquakes. Since 1972, the monitoring of Mt. Vesuvius has improved over time and become more systematic, so that there is a remarkable dataset relating to the current phase of quiescence. Over more than a century and a half of observations, many monitoring instruments have been used for Mt. Vesuvius, including early seismometers, several of which are now kept in the Museum of Volcanology of the Vesuvius Observatory. The present monitoring system is based on seismological, geodetical geodetical, and geochemical observations performed using an instrumental network that was designed on the basis of the current state of the volcano while also taking into account the likely scenario of future unrest.
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