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Authors: Vilardo, G.* 
Isaia, R.* 
Ventura, G.* 
De Martino, P.* 
Terranova, C.* 
Title: InSAR Permanent Scatterer analysis reveals fault re-activation during inflation and deflation episodes at Campi Flegrei caldera
Issue Date: Oct-2010
Series/Report no.: 10/114 (2010)
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2010.05.014
Keywords: PSInSAR
Fault re-activation
Campi Flegrei
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.06. Measurements and monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.07. Satellite geodesy 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.09. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PSInSAR) and Global Position System (GPS) are applied to investigate the most recent surface deformation of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The PSInSAR analysis, based on SAR data acquired by ERS-1/2 sensors during the 1992–2001 time interval and by the Radarsat sensor during 2003–2007, identifies displacement patterns over wide areas with high spatial resolution. GPS data acquired by the Neapolitan Volcanic Continuous GPS network provide detailed ground velocity information of specific sites. The satellite-derived data allow us to characterize the deformation pattern that affected the Campi Flegrei caldera during two recent subsidence (1992–1999) and uplift (2005– 2006) phases. PSInSAR results show the re-activation of the caldera ring-faults, intra-caldera faults, and eruptive fissures. We discuss the results in the light of the available volcanological, structural and geophysical data and propose a relationship between the structures activated during the recent unrest episodes and those responsible for the recent (b3.8–4 ka) volcanism. The combined interpretation of the collected data show that (a) the caldera consists of two sectors separated by a N–S striking faulting zone and (b) the intra-caldera NW–SE faults and eruptive fissures in the central-eastern sector re-activated during the studied unrest episodes and represent possible pathways for the ascent of magma and/or gas to the surface. In this sector, maximum horizontal strain, recent volcanism (3.8–4 ka), active degassing and seismicity concentrate. The fault re-activation is related to the dynamics of the caldera and not to tectonic stress. The deformation fields of the uplift and subsidence episodes are consistent with hydrothermal processes and degassing from a magmatic reservoir that is significantly smaller than the large (∼40 km3) magma chamber responsible for the caldera formation. We provide evidence that the monitoring of the horizontal and vertical components of deformation improves the identification of active, aseismic faults. Accordingly, we suggest that future ground deformation models should include the re-activation of the detected structures.
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