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Authors: Deegan, F. M.* 
Troll, V. R.* 
Freda, C.* 
Misiti, V.* 
Chadwick, J. P.* 
McLeod, C. L.* 
Davidson, J. P.* 
Title: Magma-Carbonate Interaction Processes and Associated CO2 Release at MerapiVolcano, Indonesia: Insights from Experimental Petrology
Journal: Journal of Petrology 
Series/Report no.: 5/51(2010)
Issue Date: 25-Feb-2010
DOI: 10.1093/petrology/egq010
Keywords: carbon dioxide
experimental petrology
magma-carbonate interaction
; strontium isotopes
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: There is considerable evidence for continuing, late-stage interaction between the magmatic system at Merapi volcano, Indonesia, and local crustal carbonate (limestone). Calc-silicate xenoliths within Merapi basaltic-andesite eruptive rocks display textures indicative of intense interaction between magma and crustal carbonate, and Merapi feldspar phenocrysts frequently contain crustally contaminated cores and zones. To resolve the interaction processes between magma and limestone in detail we have performed a series of time-variable decarbonation experiments in silicate melt, at magmatic pressure and temperature, using a Merapi basaltic-andesite and local Javanese limestone as starting materials.We have used in situ analytical methods to determine the elemental and strontium isotope composition of the experimental products and to trace the textural, chemical, and isotopic evolution of carbonate assimilation. The major processes of magma^carbonate interaction identified are: (1) rapid decomposition and degassing of carbonate; (2) generation of a Ca-enriched, highly radiogenic strontium contaminant melt, distinct from the starting material composition; (3) intense CO2 vesiculation, particularly within the contaminated zones; (4) physical mingling between the contaminated and unaffected melt domains; (5) chemical mixing between melts. The experiments reproduce many of the features of magma^carbonate interaction observed in the natural Merapi xenoliths and feldspar phenocrysts. The Ca-rich, high 87Sr/86Sr contaminant melt produced in the experiments is considered as a precursor to the Ca-rich (often ‘hyper-calcic’) phases found in the xenoliths and the contaminated zones inMerapi feldspars.The xenoliths also exhibit micro-vesicular textures that can be linked to the CO2 liberation process seen in the experiments.This study, therefore, provides well-constrained petrological insights into the problem of crustal interaction at Merapi and points toward the substantial impact of such interaction on the volatile budget of the volcano.
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