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Authors: Sepe, V.* 
Ventura, G.* 
Vilardo, G.* 
Title: Integrated methodologies for 3D deformation analysis at Ischia Island (Italy): state of the art, prospectives and modelling.
Issue Date: 9-Sep-2009
Keywords: GPS
Ground Deformation
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.07. Satellite geodesy 
Abstract: Ischia Island, located SW of Naples (Italy), has been characterized by both explosive and effusive activity with the last eruption occurred in 1302. Subsequent dynamics, characterized by seismic activity with the strongest events occurred in 1881 and 1883 and a diffuse hydrothermal phenomena, shows a significant subsidence in the S and NW sectors. The presence of the active volcanoes in a very densely area needs continuous monitoring of the dynamics related to the pre-eruptive processes. Ground deformation studies are an important precursor because are linked to magma overpressure and migration. In particular, the geodetic monitoring system is mainly based on GPS and Precise levelling techniques. Here, we present a study of the surface deformation occurring in the island based on Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique. Levelling surveys carried out between 1990 and 2003 on the Mt Epomeo resurgent block record negative dislocations on the northern and southern flanks with a maximum subsidence rate of 1.27 cm/yr. This deformation is not associated with cooling, crystallization or lateral drainage of magma and cannot be explained by a pressure point or prorate ellipsoid source. The data show that between 1990 and 2003 Mt Epomeo has been affected by a subsidence with two maxima located on its northern and southern sectors. Then, the 1992–2003 time interval and SAR data acquired by the European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites from ascending and descending orbits have been used, thus allowing us to discriminate the vertical and east–west components of the displacements. A validation of the DInSAR results has been carried out first by comparing the vertical deformations estimated from the SAR data with those measured from the spirit levelling network that is present in the area. The deformation is due to the closure of cracks associated with ENE–WSW to E–W preexisting faults along which degassing processes occur. We propose that the recorded dislocations reflect a decrease in the fluid pressure within these cracks.
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