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Authors: Frondini, F.* 
Caliro, S.* 
Cardellini, C.* 
Chiodini, G.* 
Morgantini, N.* 
Title: Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release in the Monte Amiata volcanic-geothermal area (Italy)
Journal: Applied Geochemistry 
Series/Report no.: /24 (2009)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2009
DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.01.010
Keywords: Carbon dioxide degassing
Monte Amiata
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The quaternary volcanic complex of Mount Amiata is located in southern Tuscany (Italy) and represents the most recent manifestation of the Tuscan Magmatic Province. The region is characterised by a large thermal anomaly and by the presence of numerous CO2-rich gas emissions and geothermal features, mainly located at the periphery of the volcanic complex. Two geothermal systems are located, at increasing depths, in the carbonate and metamorphic formations beneath the volcanic complex. The shallow volcanic aquifer is separated from the deep geothermal systems by a low permeability unit (Ligurian Unit). A measured CO2 discharge through soils of 1.8 109 mol a 1 shows that large amounts of CO2 move from the deep reservoir to the surface. A large range in d13CTDIC ( 21.07 to +3.65) characterises the waters circulating in the aquifers of the region and the mass and isotopic balance of TDIC allows distinguishing a discharge of 0.3 109 mol a 1 of deeply sourced CO2 in spring waters. The total natural CO2 discharge (2.1 109 mol a 1) is slightly less than minimum CO2 output estimated by an indirect method (2.8 109 mol a 1), but present-day release of 5.8 109 mol a 1 CO2 from deep geothermal wells may have reduced natural CO2 discharge. The heat transported by groundwater, computed considering the increase in temperature from the infiltration area to the discharge from springs, is of the same order of magnitude, or higher, than the regional conductive heat flow (>200 mWm 2) and reaches extremely high values (up to 2700mWm 2) in the north-eastern part of the study area. Heat transfer occurs mainly by conductive heating in the volcanic aquifer and by uprising gas and vapor along fault zones and in those areas where low permeability cover is lacking. The comparison of CO2 flux, heat flow and geological setting shows that near surface geology and hydrogeological setting play a central role in determining CO2 degassing and heat transfer patterns.
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