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Authors: Sani, F.* 
Bonini, M.* 
Cerrina Feroni, A.* 
Mazzarini, F.* 
Moratti, G.* 
Musumeci, G.* 
Corti, G.* 
Iatta, F.* 
Ellero, A.* 
Title: Messinian-Early Pliocene crustal shortening along the Tyrrhenian margin of Tuscany, Italy
Issue Date: 2009
Series/Report no.: 2/128(2009)
DOI: 10.3301/IJG.2009.128.2.593
Keywords: Northern Apennines
hinterland areas
structural analysis
pluton emplacement
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
Abstract: This paper illustrates the results of structural studies carried out in the western margin of Tuscany along a major crustal structure. Surface deformation of sediments filling different basins aligned on top of this major structure (from north to south: the Fine Basin, the Sassa–Guardistallo basin, the Rio Guardigiano area in the Lustignano basin) allow us to date its tectonic activity to the Messinian-Early Pliocene. In these areas, structures such as reverse and strike-slip faults and mesoscopic folds are widely developed. Structural analysis determined a compressive stress field with the σ1 oriented from E-W to NE-SW active from Messinian to Early Pliocene. At the southern end of this crustal structure, the Gavorrano antiform and the granitic pluton (radiometric age of granite ~4.4 Ma) coring this fold correlate with a thrust ramp anticline at depth, and thus constrain thrust activity to the Early Pliocene. These data document a Messinian–Early Pliocene compressive activity that contrasts with models invoking continuous extensional tectonics affecting the hinterland since the Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene in the frame of a back-arc-slab retreating process. The results presented therefore raise the question of which geodynamical model could account for such a complex structural evolution of Northern Apennines hinterland.
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