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Authors: Norini, G.* 
De Beni, E.* 
Andronico, D.* 
Polacci, M.* 
Burton, M. R.* 
Zucca, F.* 
Title: The 16 November 2006 flank collapse of the south-east crater at Mount Etna, Italy: Study of the deposit and hazard assessment
Issue Date: 11-Feb-2009
Series/Report no.: /114(2009)
DOI: 10.1029/2008JB005779
Keywords: Mount Etna
flank instability
volcaniclastic deposit
granular flows
numerical simulation
volcanic hazard
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: On 16 November 2006 a flank collapse affected the unstable eastern slope of the South-East Crater (SEC) of Mount Etna. The collapse occurred during one of the paroxysmal events with sustained strombolian activity that characterized the August–December 2006 eruption and was triggered by erosion of loose, hydrothermally altered material of the steep south-east sector of SEC from the outpour of lava. The collapse produced a debris avalanche that involved both lithic and juvenile material and resulted in a deposit emplaced on the eastern flank of the volcano up to 1.2 km away from the source. The total volume of the deposit was estimated to be in the order of 330,000–413,000 m3. The reconstruction of the collapse event was simulated using TITAN2D software designed to model granular avalanches and landslides. This approach can be used to estimate areas that may be affected by similar collapse events in the future. The area affected by the 16 November 2006 lateral collapse of SEC was a small portion of the Mount Etna summit area, but the fact that no one was killed or injured should be considered fortuitous. The summit and adjacent areas of the volcano, in fact, are usually visited by many tourists who are not prepared to face this type of danger. The 16 November 2006 collapse points to the need to be prepared for similar events through scientific investigation (analysis of flank instability, numerical simulation of flows) and development of specific civil protection plans.
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