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Authors: Carreira, P. M.* 
Marques, J. M.* 
Carvalho, M. R.* 
Capasso, G.* 
Grassa, F.* 
Title: Mantle-derived carbon in Hercynian granites. 1 Stable isotopes signatures 2 and C/He associations in the thermomineral waters, N-Portugal
Issue Date: Oct-2009
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.10.008
Keywords: CO2-rich thermomineral waters
mantle volatiles
Chaves geothermal 9 system
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.02. Hydrological processes: interaction, transport, dynamics 
03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.03. Groundwater processes 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.03. Chemistry of waters 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
Abstract: Na–HCO3–CO2-rich thermomineral waters issue in the N of Portugal, within the Galicia-Trás-os-Montes region, linked to a major NNE-trending fault, the so-called Penacova-Régua-Verin megalineament. Along this tectonic structure different occurrences of CO2-rich thermomineral waters are found: Chaves hot waters (67 °C) and also several cold (16.1 °C) CO2-rich waters. The δ2H and δ18O values of the thermomineral waters are similar to those of the local meteoric waters. The chemical composition of both hot and cold mineral waters suggests that water–rock reactions are mainly controlled by the amount of dissolved CO2 (g) rather than by the water temperature. Stable carbon isotope data indicate an external CO2 inorganic origin for the gas. δ13CCO2 values ranging between −7.2‰ and −5.1‰ are consistent with a two-component mixture between crustal and mantle-derived CO2. Such an assumption is supported by the 3He/4He ratios measured in the gas phase, are between 0.89 and 2.68 times the atmospheric ratio (Ra). These ratios which are higher than that those expected for a pure crustal origin (≈0.02 Ra), indicating that 10 to 30% of the He has originated from the upper mantle. Release of deep-seated fluids having a mantle-derived component in a region without recent volcanic activity indicates that extensive neo-tectonic structures originating during the Alpine Orogeny are still active (i.e., the Chaves Depression).
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