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Authors: Mollo, S.* 
Gaeta, M.* 
Freda, C.* 
Di Rocco, T.* 
Misiti, V.* 
Scarlato, P.* 
Title: Carbonate assimilation in magmas: a reappraisal based on experimental petrology
Issue Date: 2009
DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2009.10.013
Keywords: carbonate assimilation
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: The main effect of magma-carbonate interaction on magma differentiation is the formation of a silica-undersaturated, alkali-rich residual melt. Such a desilication process was explained as the progressive dissolution of CaCO3 in melt by consumption of SiO2 and MgO to form diopside sensu stricto. Magma chambers emplaced in carbonate substrata, however, are generally associated with magmatic skarns containing clinopyroxene with a high Ca-Tschermak activity in their paragenesis. Data are presented from magma-carbonate interaction experiments, demonstrating that carbonate assimilation is a complex process involving more components than so far assumed. Experimental results show that, during carbonate assimilation, a diopside-hedenbergite-Ca-Tschermak clinopyroxene solid solution is formed and that Ca-Tschermak/diopside and hedenbergite/diopside ratios increase as a function of the progressive carbonate assimilation. Accordingly, carbonate assimilation reaction should be written as follows, taking into account all the involved magmatic components: CaCO3solid+SiO2melt+MgOmelt+FeOmelt+Al2O3melt → (Di-Hd-CaTs)sssolid+CO2fluid The texture of experimental products demonstrates that carbonate assimilation produces three-phases (solid, melt, and fluid) whose main products are: i) diopside-hedenbergite-Ca-Tschermak clinopyroxene solid solution; ii) silica-undersaturated CaO-rich melt; and iii) C-O-H fluid phase. The silica undersaturation of the melt and, more importantly, the occurrence of a CO2-rich fluid phase, must be taken into account as they significantly affect partition coefficients and the redox state of carbonated systems, respectively.
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