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Authors: Corsaro, R. A.* 
Civetta, L.* 
Di Renzo, V.* 
Title: Petrology of lavas from the 2004–2005 flank eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy: inferences on the dynamics of magma in the shallow plumbing system
Issue Date: 2009
Series/Report no.: /71(2009)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-009-0264-z
Keywords: Geochemistry
Isotopic compositions
Magma feeding system
Magma mixing
Mt. Etna
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
Abstract: Following the 2001 and 2002–2003 flank eruptions, activity resumed at Mt. Etna on 7 September 2004 and lasted for about 6 months. This paper presents new petrographic, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd isotope data from sequential samples collected during the entire 2004–2005 eruption. The progressive change of lava composition allowed defining three phases that correspond to different processes controlling magma dynamics inside the central volcano conduits. The compositional variability of products erupted up to 24 September is well reproduced by a fractional crystallization model that involves magma already stored at shallow depth since the 2002–2003 eruption. The progressive mixing of this magma with a distinct new one rising within the central conduits is clearly revealed by the composition of the products erupted from 24 September to 15 October. After 15 October, the contribution from the new magma gradually becomes predominant, and the efficiency of the mixing process ensures the emission of homogeneous products up to the end of the eruption. Our results give insights into the complex conditions of magma storage and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of Mt. Etna during a flank eruption. Furthermore, they confirm that the 2004–2005 activity at Etna was triggered by regional movements of the eastern flank of the volcano. They caused the opening of a complex fracture zone extending ESE which drained a magma stored at shallow depth since the 2002–2003 eruption. This process favored the ascent of a different magma in the central conduits, which began to be erupted on 24 September without any significant change in eruptive style, deformation, and seismicity until the end of eruption.
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