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Authors: Arienzo, I.* 
Civetta, L.* 
Heumann, I.* 
Wörner, G.* 
Orsi, G.* 
Title: Isotopic evidence for open system processes within the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei–Italy) magma chamber
Issue Date: 2009
Series/Report no.: /71(2009)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-008-0223-0
Keywords: Campanian Ignimbrite
Radiogenic isotopes
Mixing process
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
Abstract: New Sr and Nd isotope data for whole rocks, glasses and minerals are combined to reconstruct the nature and origin of mixing end-members of the 200 km3 trachytic to phonolitic Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy) magmatic system. The least-evolved magmatic end-member shows equilibrium between host glass and the majority of the phenocrysts and is less radiogenic in Sr and Nd than the most-evolved magma. On the contrary, only the Fe-rich pyroxene from the most-evolved erupted magma is in equilibrium with the matrix glass, while all other minerals are in isotopic disequilibrium. These magmas mixed prior to and during the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and minerals were freely exchanged between the magma batches. Combining the results of the geochemical investigations on magma end-members with geophysical and geological data, we develop the following scenario. In stage 1, a parental, less differentiated magma rose into the middle crust, and evolved through combined crustal assimilation and crystal fractionation. In stage 2, the differentiated magma rose to shallower depth, fed the pre-Campanian Ignimbrite activity and evolved by further open-system processes into the most-evolved and most-radiogenic Campanian Ignimbrite end-member magma. In stage 3, new trachytic magma, isotopically distinct from the pre-Campanian Ignimbrite magmas, rose from ca. 6 km to shallower depth, recharged the most-evolved pre-Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber, and formed the large and stratified Campanian Ignimbrite magmatic system. During the course of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, the two layers were tapped separately and/or simultaneously, and gave rise to the range of chemical and isotopic values displayed by the Campanian Ignimbrite pumices, glasses and minerals.
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