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Authors: Kozlowska, B.* 
Morelli, D.* 
Walencik, A.* 
Dorda, J.* 
Altamore, I.* 
Chieffalo, V.* 
Giammanco, S.* 
Imme, G.* 
Zipper, W.* 
Title: Radioactivity in waters of Mt. Etna (Italy)
Issue Date: Apr-2009
Series/Report no.: /44(2009)
DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.05.002
Keywords: Ra-226
Drinking water
Activity concentration
Effective dose
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.07. Radioactivity and isotopes 
Abstract: Radioactivity in underground waters from Mt. Etna was investigated on the basis of 13 samples. The samples were collected from springs, wells and galleries around the volcano. Water from nine out of thirteen intakes is used for consumption. Activity concentration of uranium isotopes 234,238U, radium isotopes 226,228Ra and radon 222Rn were determined with the use different nuclear spectrometry techniques. The measurements of radium and radon activity concentration were performed with the use of a liquid scintillation counter. The determination of uranium isotopes was carried out with the use of alpha spectrometry. All samples show uranium concentration above Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), with the highest total uranium (234U þ 238U) activity concentration equal to 130 mBq/l. For radium isotopes, all samples except one showed the activity concentration below MDA. Radon activity concentration was within the range from 1 to 13 Bq/l, hence these waters can be classified as low-radon waters.
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