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Authors: Bellomo, S.* 
D'Alessandro, W.* 
Longo, M.* 
Title: Volcanogenic fluorine in rainwater around active degassing volcanoes: Mt. Etna and Stromboli Island, Italy
Journal: Science of The Total Environment 
Series/Report no.: 301(2003)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2003
Keywords: Fluorine
Rainwater chemistry
Volcanic activity
Mt. Etna
Stromboli Island
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.07. Volcanic effects 
03. Hydrosphere::03.03. Physical::03.03.01. Air/water/earth interactions 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.03. Chemistry of waters 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.01. Geochemical data 
05. General::05.08. Risk::05.08.01. Environmental risk 
Abstract: Many studies have assessed the strong influence of volcanic activity on the surrounding environment. This is particularly true for strong gas emitters such as Mt. Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. Among volcanic gases, fluorine compounds are potentially very harmful. Fluorine cycling through rainwater in the above volcanic areas was studied analysing more than 400 monthly bulk samples. Data indicate that only approximately 1% of fluorine emission through the plume is deposited on the two volcanic areas by meteoric precipitations. Although measured bulk rainwater fluorine fluxes are comparable to and sometimes higher than in heavily polluted areas, their influence on the surrounding vegetation is limited. Only annual crops, in fact, show some damage that could be an effect of fluorine deposition, indicating that long-living endemic plant species or varieties have developed some kind of resistance.
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