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Authors: Mikhailov, A. V.* 
Perrone, L.* 
Title: Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality?
Issue Date: 18-Mar-2009
Series/Report no.: / 27 (2009)
Keywords: Atmospheric composition and structure (Thermosphere-composition and chemistry)
Ionosphere (Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Ionospheric disturbances)
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.01. Ion chemistry and composition 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.04. Plasma Physics 
Abstract: A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements were due to previous geomagnetic storms, moderate auroral activity or they presented the class of positive quiet time events (Q-disturbances). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is no such an effect as the pre-storm NmF2 enhancement as a phenomenon inalienably related to the following magnetic storm. The observed nighttime NmF2 enhancements at subauroral latitudes may result from plasma transfer from the plasma ring area by meridional thermospheric wind. Enhanced plasmaspheric fluxes into the nighttime F2-region resulted from westward substorm-associated electric fields is another possible source of nighttime NmF2 enhancements. Daytime positive Q-disturbances occurring under very low geomagnetic activity level may be related to the dayside cusp activity.
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