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Authors: Walter, T. R.* 
Wang, R.* 
Acocella, V.* 
Neri, M.* 
Zschau, J.* 
Title: Simultaneous magma and gas eruptions at three volcanoes in southern Italy: An earthquake trigger?
Issue Date: Mar-2009
Series/Report no.: 3/37 (2009)
DOI: 10.1130/G25396A
Keywords: simultaneous magma eruptions
earthquake trigger
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.02. Geological and geophysical evidences of deep processes 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.02. Earthquake interactions and probability 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.02. Geodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.05. Stress 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: In September 2002, a series of tectonic earthquakes occurred north of Sicily, Italy, followed by three events of volcanic unrest within 150 km. On 28 October 2002, Mount Etna erupted; on 3 November 2002, submarine degassing occurred near Panarea Island; and on 28 December 2002, Stromboli Island erupted. All of these events were considered unusual: the Mount Etna northeast-rift eruption was the largest in 55 yr; the Panarea degassing was one of the strongest ever detected there; and the Stromboli eruption, which produced a landslide and tsunami, was the largest effusive eruption in 17 yr. Here we investigate the synchronous occurrence of these clustered events, and develop a possible explanatory model. We compute short-term earthquake-induced dynamic strain changes and compare them to long-term tectonic effects. Results suggest that the earthquake-induced strain changes exceeded annual tectonic strains by at least an order of magnitude. This agitation occurred in seconds, and may have induced fluid and gas pressure migration within the already active hydrothermal and magmatic systems.
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