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Authors: Pesci, A.* 
Loddo, F.* 
Teza, G.* 
Cenni, N.* 
Casula, G.* 
Title: Analyzing Virtual Reference Station for GPS surveying: experiments and applications in a test site of the northern Apennine (Italy).
Journal: Annals of Geophysics 
Series/Report no.: 4/51 (2008)
Publisher: Editrice Compositori
Issue Date: Aug-2008
Keywords: GPS
Virtual Reference Stations
Rapid Static Survey
Landslide Monitoring
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.05. Downhole, radioactivity, remote sensing, and other methods 
Abstract: The availability of a GPS network of 10-20 km mean size, provides good topographical support for the measurement of ground displacements, even at a local scale such as a landslide. In particular, a series of multitemporal kinematic or rapid-static GPS acquisitions of a landslide allows a good characterization of its displacements if the measurements are referred to a GPS reference network. Nevertheless, a wider network formed by stations located at long distances, for example at several tens of kilometers, characterized by large spacing, can lead to results affected by high noise, degrading the accuracy of final point positions. In order to obtain an adequate GPS reference network, some virtual reference stations (VRSs) can be introduced, even if a network refinement based on VRS cannot reach the same accuracy of a real local network. Some experiments, including measurements on a real landslide, have been performed in order to evaluate the performance of this technique. The results point out that the standard deviation of the obtained solutions is about two or three times larger than those which can be reached using a real local network.
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Annals of Geophysics

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