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Authors: Schivardi, R.* 
Morelli, A.* 
Title: Surface wave tomography in the European and Mediterranean region
Issue Date: 15-Dec-2008
Keywords: Seismic tomography
Surface waves and free oscillations
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.07. Tomography and anisotropy 
Abstract: We present a new surface-wave tomograpic study of the broad European and Mediterranean region. Our goal is to enhance the resolution of previously published group velocity models using new data from European permanent seismic networks and a dense broad-band array in Northern Apennines (RETREAT). We measure fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love wave group velocities from long period seismograms recorded at regional distance (between 600 and 7000 km). Our measurement technique is based on iterative application of multiple filters and phase-matched filters; we accurately estimate dispersion curves for more than 1500 Rayleigh wave and about 850 Love wave paths in the period range 35 s - 170 s. Consistency of measurements is evaluated by comparing ray clusters from sample earthquakes to closely spaced RETREAT stations. In the whole data set, measurement errors in group velocity decrease with increasing distance, and show to be caused by inaccuracy in the estimate of group arrival time. We calculate maps of Love and Rayleigh group velocity at selected periods by linear tomographic inversion, accounting for group arrival time errors and evaluating a posteriori group slowness errors. Data coverage in this region is not uniform, and it is highly influenced by the uneven distribution of earthquakes and seismic stations. We therefore build a laterally heterogeneous reference model by inverting a global data set of group velocity derived from the phase velocity library of Ekstrom et al., 1997. Use of this reference as an a priori model during inversion improves preliminary data coverage at the borders of our study region, and warrants consistency with global models. The implications of different regularization constraints (mathematically equivalent to norm damping or smoothing with different criteria) are analyzed and compared. Group velocity maps confirm the large scale geological lineaments known for the region: short periods maps differentiate well among thinner oceanic and thicker continental crust; the most dominant feature in long period maps is the difference between the fast Precambrian East European Platform and the low velocity signature of central Europe and western Mediterranean, separated by a sharp gradient in correspondence of the Tornquist-Tesseyre Zone. The seismically active Tethyan Belt is clearly marked by a continuous slow anomaly. Smaller scale, possibly thermally related, low velocity anomalies are found under Iceland and Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Rhine Graben and Tyrrhenian Back-Arc basin, while the Hellenic Arc is characterized by fast velocity.
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