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Authors: Sacchi, E.* 
Zuppi, G. M.* 
Pizzino, L.* 
Quattrocchi, F.* 
Lombardi, S.* 
Title: Fluid geochemistry as indicator of tectonically-related, deep water circulations in the Sardinian Rift-Campidano Graben: new insights from environmental isotopes.
Issue Date: 2008
Series/Report no.: /14 (2008)
DOI: 10.1007/s10498-008-9038-z
Keywords: Fluid Geochemistry, Environmental Isotopes
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
Abstract: The EC funded Geochemical Seismic Zonation program (EEC GSZ Project 1996-98) chose Sardinia as a low-seismicity site, in which the relationships between fluid geochemistry and seismo-tectonics had to be investigated and results compared with outcomes from other selected high-seismicity sites. A first paper, examining the role of fault segmentation and seismic quiescence on the geochemical composition of groundwaters and gases, has already been presented (Angelone et al. 2005). This paper deals with environmental isotopes which, together with selected hydrochemical data, give hints on tectonically-related fluid circulations. Four water-dominated hydrothermal systems were considered, all located along regional fault systems and discharging groundwaters belonging to the Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl facies. In the considered systems, groundwater circulation takes place, principally, in the Palaeozoic Crystalline Basement (PCB), with the exception of the Logudoro system, where hydrological circuits develop in the Mesozoic Carbonate Platform (MCP). The high CO2 contents, the non-attainment of fluid-rock equilibrium and the large lithological variability prevent the construction of a unique hydrogeological-geochemical conceptual model. In this case, stable isotopes provide a useful tool to describe the origin of fluids and their subterranean movements. Stable isotopes of water, integrated with hydrochemical data, indicate that fluids are derived from three main endmembers. The dominant component is a relatively recent local meteoric water, the second one is marine water, and the third one is a fossil freshwater, depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to modern rains. The latter endmember entered the aquifer system in the past, when climatic conditions were greatly different from today. At least two circulation systems can be recognised, namely a shallow cold system and a deep hydrothermal system, as well as two distinct hydrological processes: (1) gravity-controlled descent of cold water towards greater depths and (2) convection linked to a thermal gradient, causing deep fluids to rise up from the hydrothermal reservoir towards the surface. The highly variable 13CTDIC values suggest the presence of two distinct CO2 sources, namely a biogenic one and a thermogenic one. The relation between the isotopic compositions of CO2 and He indicates an increased mantle signature in uprising CO2-rich fluids.
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