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Authors: Salimbeni, S.* 
Pondrelli, S.* 
Margheriti, L.* 
Park, J.* 
Levin, V.* 
Title: SKS splitting measurements beneath Northern Apennines region: A case of oblique trench-retreat
Issue Date: 15-Dec-2008
Series/Report no.: 1-4/462 (2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.075
Keywords: seismic anisotropy
mantle deformation
Northern Apennines
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.02. Geological and geophysical evidences of deep processes 
Abstract: We present here the new observations of seismic anisotropy obtained from SKS birefringence analysis. We studied 27 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the temporary seismic network of RETREAT project in the Northern Apennines region. For each station–event couple we calculate the anisotropic parameters (delay time and fast-polarization direction) by minimizing the energy in the transverse component. Our measurements confirm the existence of two domains. The Tuscany domain, on the south-west with respect to the Apennines, shows mostly NW–SE fast axes directions, with a rotation toward E–W direction moving toward the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Adria domain, north-east of the Apennines orogen, shows more scattered measurements, with prevailing N–S to NNE–SSW directions; also with back-azimuthal dependence. The transition between the two domains is abrupt in the nothern part of the study region but more gradual in the southern part. Measured delay times (1.8 s on average) suggest that the detected anisotropy is located principally in the asthenosphere. Beneath the Adria domain, where the presence of a double-layer structure seems consistent, a lithospheric contribution is plausible. An interpretation in terms of ongoing mantle deformation suggests a differential evolution of the trench-retreat process along the Northern Apennines orogen. The orogen-parallel anisotropy in the study region is beneath the inner part of the belt instead of beneath its crest and no orogen-normal measurements are found in the Tuscany side. Compared to the anisotropy pattern of the typical slab retreat seen in southern part of the Northern Apennines, in the northernmost one the anisotropy suggests that an oblique trench-retreat has occurred, possibly linked to Northern Apennines retreat since 5 Ma.
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