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Authors: Cannata, A.* 
Catania, A.* 
Alparone, S.* 
Gresta, S.* 
Title: Volcanic tremor at Mt. Etna: Inferences on magma dynamics during effusive and explosive activity
Issue Date: 30-Nov-2008
Series/Report no.: 1/178(2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.11.027
Keywords: Mt. Etna
volcanic tremor
spectral and polarization analysis
effusive and explosive activity
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
Abstract: During 1999, the volcanic activity at Mt. Etna was both explosive and effusive at the summit craters: Strombolian activity, lava fountains and lava flows affected different areas of the volcano, involving three of the four summit craters. Results from analysis of the 1999 volcanic tremor features are shown at two different time scales. First, the long-term time variation of the features of the volcanic tremor (including spectral and polarization parameters), during the entire year, was compared with the evolution of the eruptive activity. This approach demonstrated the good agreement between tremor data and observed eruptive activity; the activation of different tremor sources was suggested. Then, a more refined analysis of the volcanic tremor, recorded during 14 lava fountain eruptions, was performed. In particular, a shift of the dominant frequencies towards lower values was noted which corresponds with increasing explosive activity. Similar behaviour in the frequency content has already been observed in other explosive eruptions at Mt. Etna as well as on other volcanoes. This behaviour has been explained in terms of either an increase in the tremor source dimension or a decrease in the sound speed in the magma within the conduit. These results confirm that the volcanic tremor is a powerful tool for better understanding the physical processes controlling explosive eruptions at Mt. Etna volcano.
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