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Authors: Carapezza, M. L.* 
Ricci, T.* 
Ranaldi, M.* 
Tarchini, L.* 
Title: Active degassing structures of Stromboli and variations in diffuse CO2 output related to the volcanic activity
Issue Date: 2008
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.08.006
Keywords: Stromboli
diffuse CO2 fluxes
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The main CO2 diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of Stromboli were identified through extensive CO2 soil flux investigations, with 3600 measurements by an accumulation chamber. These DDS extend from the nearby crater area of Pizzo sopra la Fossa (Pizzo) to the coastal area of Pizzillo and are all associated with NE–SW deep fractures, corresponding to the main volcano-tectonic axis of the island, some of which produced flank eruptions in prehistoric times. In each of the four main DDS, a target area was defined covering the zone with the highest CO2 soil flux, where periodic CO2 flux surveys were carried out. The highest CO2 release was observed during the 2007 eruption and high flux values were recorded at both Pizzo and Pizzillo also in moments of high prolonged Strombolian activity (high number of daily explosions observed from the craters and/or high frequency of VLP seismic events). In order to better investigate the rate of diffuse CO2 degassing in relation to volcanic activity, an automatic station hourly measuring CO2 soil flux and environmental parameters (atmospheric T, P and humidity, soil moisture and T, wind speed and direction) was installed in March 2007 at Nel Cannestrà and Rina Grande DDS. Unusual positive correlations were found at Nel Cannestrà between gas flux and SE wind speed and at Rina Grande between gas flux and soil moisture, which are explained by the local conditions, which favour respectively a Venturi effect and the increase in gas flux toward the station during rains. Ten months of continuous recording confirmed the strong influence of environmental conditions on the CO2 soil flux, but statistical data processing made it possible to recognize clear positive anomalies expressing high rates of deep magmatic CO2 degassing. Comparison with seismic data indicates that high CO2 fluxes are apparently correlated with increases in volcanic activity, such as higher explosion frequency and VLP amplitude. Particularly promising is the temporal coincidence of highest recorded flux anomaly with a major explosion that occurred during the observation period. Data confirm that the two continuously monitored DDS are preferentially deep degassing sites, where anomalous increases of CO2 release could represent a geochemical precursor for either high energy explosions from the craters or the opening of flank eruptive fissures that might threaten the village of Stromboli.
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