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Authors: Bizzarri, A.* 
Belardinelli, M. E.* 
Title: Modelling instantaneous dynamic triggering in a 3-D fault system: application to the 2000 June South Iceland seismic sequence
Issue Date: 2008
Series/Report no.: 3/173 (2008)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03765.x
Keywords: Dynamic triggering
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.02. Earthquake interactions and probability 
Abstract: We present a model of seismogenesis on an extended 3-D fault, subject to the external perturbations of coseismic stress changes due to an earthquake occurring on another fault (the causative fault). As an application, we consider the spatio-temporal stress redistribution produced on the Hvalhn´ukur fault by the MS 6.6 2000 June 17 mainshock in the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). The latter is located nearly 64 kmfrom the causative fault and failed 26 s after the main shock with an estimated magnitudeMw = 5.25 ± 0.25, providing an example of instantaneous dynamic triggering. The stress perturbations are computed by means of a discrete wavenumber and reflectivity code. The response of the perturbed fault is then analysed solving the truly 3-D, fully dynamic (or spontaneous) problem accounting for crustal stratification. In a previous study, the response of the Hvalhn´ukur fault was analysed by using a spring–slider fault model (SS fault model), comparing the estimated perturbed failure time with the observed origin time. In addition to the perturbed failure time, this model can provide numerical estimates of many other dynamic features of the triggered event, which can be compared with available observations—the rupture history of the whole fault plane, its final extent and the seismic moment of the induced event.We show the key differences existing between a mass–spring model and this extended fault model; in particular, we show the essential role of the load exerted by the neighbouring slipping points of the fault. By considering both rate- and state-dependent laws and non-linear slip-dependent law, we show how the dynamics of the 26 s fault strongly depend on the assumed constitutive law and initial stress conditions. In the case of rate- and state-dependent friction laws, assuming an initial effective normal stress distribution that is suitable for the SISZ and consistent with previously stated conditions of instantaneous dynamic triggering of the Hvalhn´ukur fault, we obtain results in general agreement with observations.
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