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Authors: Marani, M. P.* 
Gamberi, F.* 
Rosi, M.* 
Bertagnini, A.* 
Di Roberto, A.* 
Title: Subaqueous sedimentary density flow processes and deposits of an island Volcano landslide (Stromboli island, Italy)
Issue Date: 2008
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.01043.x
Keywords: Island volcano
submarine landslide deposits
subaqueous cohesionless density flows
low transitions
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.04. Marine geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.08. Sediments: dating, processes, transport 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: Stromboli is a 3000-m-high island volcano, rising to 900 m above sea level. It is the most active volcano of the Aeolian Archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). Major, large volume (1 km3)sector collapses, four occurring in the last 13 Kyr, have played an important part in shaping the north-western flank (Sciara del Fuoco) of the volcano, potentially generating a high-risk tsunami hazard for the Aeolian Islands and the Italian coast. However, smaller volume, partial collapses of the Sciara del Fuoco have been shown to be more frequent tsunami-generating events. One such event occurred on 30 December 2002, when a partial collapse of the north-western flank of the island took place. The resulting landslide generated 10-m-high tsunami waves that impacted the island. Multibeam bathymetry, side-scan sonar imaging and visual observations reveal that the landslide deposited 25-30 x 106 m3 of sediment on the submerged slope offshore from the Sciara del Fuoco. Two contiguous main deposit facies are recognised: (1) a chaotic, coarse grained (metre- to centimetre-sized clasts) deposit; and (2) a sand deposit containing a lower, cross-bedded sand layer and an upper structureless pebbly sand bed capped by seafloor ripple bedforms. The sand facies develops adjacent to and partially overlying the coarse deposits. Characteristics of the deposits suggest that they derive from cohesionless, sandy-matrix, density flows. Flow rheology and dynamics led to the segregation of the density flow into sand-rich and clast-rich regions. A range of density flow transitions, both in space and in time, based principally on particle concentration and grain-size partitioning within cohesionless parent flows have been identified in the deposits of this relatively small-scale submarine landslide event.
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