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Authors: Rouwet, D.* 
Bellomo, S.* 
Brusca, L.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
Jutzeler, M.* 
Mora, R.* 
Mazot, A.* 
Bernard, R.* 
Cassidy, M.* 
Taran, Y.* 
Title: Major and trace element geochemistry of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system (Chiapas, Mexico) in 2006-2007: implications for future geochemical monitoring
Issue Date: 2008
Keywords: El Chichón
volcanic surveillance
fluid geochemistry
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.03. Chemistry of waters 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: We report a detailed study of isotopic, major and trace element composition in the crater lake, Soap Pool and thermal springs at El Chichón volcano for the period November 2006-October 2007. After two decades of studying the crater lake, it is possible to confirm the complex relationship between the annual rainfall distribution and the crater lake volume and chemistry: during three years (2001, 2004 and 2007) a large volume high-Cl lake can be related to the reactivation of high discharge (>10 kg/s) of saline near-neutral water from the Soap Pool boiling springs towards the lake, only a few months (~January) after the end of the rainy season (June-October). The highest lake volume ever observed occurred in March 2007 (~6x105 m3). Despite the fact that the Agua Tibia 2 thermal springs discharge at the foot of the SW dome, their chemistry indicates a lower temperature regime, an enhanced water-rock interaction and basement contribution (evaporites and carbonates), and anhydrite leaching from the 1982 pyroclastic deposits, rather than dome activity. New suggestions on crater lake seepage are evidenced by the Agua Caliente thermal springs. Existing models on the “crater lake-Soap Pool spring” and the deep hydrothermal system are justified and detailed. We believe that chemical changes in the deep geothermal aquifer feeding the thermal springs will anticipate dome rise. Future volcanic surveillance should focus on the changes in spring chemistry, besides crater lake monitoring.
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