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Authors: Alfonsi, Lu.* 
Kavanagh, A. J.* 
Amata, E.* 
Cilliers, P.* 
Correia, E.* 
Freeman, M.* 
Kauristie, K.* 
Liu, R.* 
Luntama, J.-P.* 
Mitchell, C. N.* 
Zherebtsov, G. A.* 
Title: Probing the high latitude ionosphere from ground-based observations: The state of current knowledge and capabilities during IPY (2007–2009)
Issue Date: Dec-2008
Series/Report no.: 18 / 70 (2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.013
Keywords: Polar ionosphere
International polar year
Interhemispheric studies
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.02. Dynamics 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.06. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.07. Space and Planetary sciences::05.07.01. Solar-terrestrial interaction 
05. General::05.07. Space and Planetary sciences::05.07.02. Space weather 
Abstract: During the International Polar Year (IPY), one area of great interest is co-coordinated, multi-instrument probing of the ionosphere at high latitudes. This region is important not only for the applications that rely upon our understanding of it, but also because it contains the footprints of processes that have their origin in the interplanetary space. Many different techniques are now available for probing the ionosphere, from radar measurements to the analysis of very low frequency (VLF) wavepaths. Combining these methods provides the ability to study the ionosphere from high in the F-region to the bottom of the D-layer. Thus, coupling processes from the magnetosphere and to the neutral atmosphere can be considered. An additional dimension is through comparisons of the response of the two polar ionospheres to similar (or the same) geomagnetic activity. With more instruments available at the South Pole inter-hemispheric, studies have become easier to accomplish such that a fuller picture of the global response to Sun–Earth coupling can be painted. This paper presents a review of the current state of knowledge in ionospheric probing. It cannot provide a comprehensive guide of the work to date due to the scale of the topic.Rather it is intended to give an overview of the techniques and recent results from some of the instruments and facilities that are a part of the IPY cluster 63—Heliosphere Impact on Geospace. In this way it is hoped that the reader will gain a flavor of the recent research performed in this area and the potential for continuing collaboration and capabilities during the IPY (2007–2009).
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