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Authors: Mazot, A.* 
Bernard, A.* 
Fischer, T.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
Sutawidjaja, I. S.* 
Title: Chemical evolution of thermal waters and changes in the hydrothermal system of Papandayan volcano (West Java, Indonesia) after the November 2002 eruption
Issue Date: 27-Jun-2008
Series/Report no.: /178(2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.06.022
Keywords: Papandayan volcano
phreatic eruption
hydrothermal system
fluid geochemistry
advanced argillic alteration
gas geochemistry
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.01. Geochemical data 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: Papandayan is a stratovolcano situated in West Java, Indonesia. Since the last magmatic eruption in 1772,only few hydrothermal explosions have occurred. An explosive eruption occurred in November 2002 and ejected ash and altered rocks. The altered rocks show that an advanced argillic alteration took place in the hydrothermal system by interaction between acid fluids and rocks. Four zones of alteration have been defined and are limited in extension and shape along faults or across permeable structures at different levels beneath the active crater of the volcano. At the present time, the activity is centered in the northeast crater with discharge of low temperature fumaroles and acid hot springs. Two types of acid fluids are emitted in the crater of Papandayan volcano: (1) acid sulfate-chloride waters with pH between 1.6 and 4.6 and (2) acid sulfate waters with pH between 1.2 and 2.5. The water samples collected after the eruption on January 2003 reveal an increase in the SO4/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios. This evolution is likely explained by an increase in the neutralization of acid fluids and tends to show that water–rock interactions were more significant after the eruption. The evolution in the chemistry observed since 2003 is the consequence of the opening of new fractures at depth where unaltered (or less altered) volcanic rocks were in contact with the ascending acid waters. The high δ34S values (9–17‰) observed in acid sulfatechloride waters before the November 2002 eruption suggest that a significant fraction of dissolved sulfates was formed by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2. On the other hand, the low δ34S (−0.3–7‰) observed in hot spring waters sampled after the eruption suggest that the hydrothermal contribution (i.e. the surficial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide) has increased.
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