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Authors: Lautze, N. C.* 
Harris, A. J. L.* 
Bailey, J. E.* 
Ripepe, M.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Dehn, J.* 
Rowland, S.* 
Evans-Jones, K.* 
Title: Pulsed lava effusion at Mount Etna during 2001
Journal: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 
Series/Report no.: 1-3/137(2004)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 30-Sep-2004
Keywords: effusion rate
shallow supply and Etna
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: Effusion rate and degassing data collected at Mt. Etna volcano (Italy) in 2001 show variations occurring on time scales of hours to months. We use both long- and short-term data sets spanning January to August to identify this variation. The long data sets comprise a satellite- and ground-based time series of effusion rates, and the latter include field-based effusion rate and degassing data collected May 29–31. The satellite-derived effusion rates for January through August reveal four volumetric pulses that are characterized by increasing mean effusion rate values and lead up to the 2001 flank eruption. Peak effusion rates during these 23–57 day pulses were 1.2 m3 s-1 in Pulse 1 (1 Jan–4 Mar), 1.1 m3 s-1 in Pulse 2 (5 Mar–21 Apr), 4.2 m3 s-1 in Pulse 3 (24 Apr–18 Jun), 8.8 m3 s-1 in Pulse 4 (23 Jun–16 Jul), and 22.2 m3 s-1 during the flank eruption (17 Jul–9 Aug). Rank-order analysis of the satellite data shows that effusion rate values during the 2001 flank eruption define a statistically different trend than Etna's persistent activity from Jan 1 to Jul 17. Data prior to the flank eruption obey a power-law relationship that may define an effusion rate threshold of ~3–5 m3 s-1 for Etna's typical persistent activity. Our short-term data coincide with the satellite-derived peak effusion period of Pulse 3. Degassing (at-vent puff frequency) shows a general increase from May 29 to 31, with hour-long variations in both puff frequency and lava flow velocity (effusion rate). We identify five 3–14 h degassing periods that contain 26 shorter (19–126 min-long) oscillations. This variation shows some positive correlation with effusion rate measurements during the same time period. If a relationship between puff frequency and effusion rate is valid, we propose that their short-term variation is the result of changes in the supply rate of magma to the near-vent conduit system. Therefore, these short-term data provide some evidence that the clear weeks- to months-long variation in Etna's effusive activity (January–August 2001) was overprinted by a minutes- to hour-scale oscillation in shallow supply.
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