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Authors: Aiuppa, A.* 
Federico, C.* 
Giudice, G.* 
Giuffrida, G.* 
Guida, R.* 
Gurrieri, S.* 
Liuzzo, M.* 
Moretti, R.* 
Papale, P.* 
Title: The 2007 eruption of Stromboli volcano: Insights from real-time measurement of the volcanic gas plume CO2/SO2 ratio
Issue Date: 2008
Series/Report no.: /(2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.013
Keywords: Stromboli
plume chemistry
magma degassing
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.04. Thermodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The recent eruption of Stromboli in February–April 2007 offered a unique chance to test our current understanding of processes driving the transition from ordinary (persistent Strombolian) to effusive activity, and the ability of instrumental geophysical and geochemical networks to interpret and predict these events. Here, we report on the results of two years of in-situ sensing of the CO2/SO2 ratio in Stromboli's volcanic gas plume, in the attempt to put constraints on the trigger mechanisms and dynamics of the eruption. We show that large variations of the plume CO2/SO2 ratio (range, 0.9–26) preceded the onset of the eruption (since December 2007), interrupting a period of relatively-steady and low ratios (time-averaged ratio, 4.3) lasting from at least May to November 2006. By contrasting our observations with numerical simulations of volcanic degassing at Stromboli, derived by use of an equilibrium saturation model, we suggest that the pre-eruptive increase of the ratio reflected an enhanced supply of deeply-derived CO2-rich gas bubbles to the shallowplumbing system. This larger-than-normal ascent of gas bubbles was likely sourced by a 1–3 km deep gas– melt separation region (probably a magma storage zone), and caused faster convective overturning of magmas in the shallow conduit; an increase in the explosive rate and in seismic tremor, and finally the collapse of the la Sciara del Fuoco sector triggering the effusive phase. The high CO2/SO2 ratios (up to 21) observed during the effusive phase, and particularly in the days and hours before a paroxysmal explosion on March 15, 2007, indicate the persistence of the same gas source; and suggest that de-pressurization of the same 1–3 km deep magma storage zone could have been the trigger mechanism for the paroxysm itself
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