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Authors: Gresta, S.* 
Ripepe, M.* 
Marchetti, E.* 
D'Amico, S.* 
Coltelli, M.* 
Harris, A. J. L.* 
Privitera, E.* 
Title: Seismoacoustic measurements during the July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna volcano, Italy
Journal: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 
Series/Report no.: 1-3/137 September 30, 2004
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 30-Sep-2004
Keywords: Mt. Etna
explosive eruptions
infrasonic and thermal data
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.10. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: On July 18, 2001, two main eruptive vents opened on the southern flank of Mount Etna volcano (Italy) at ~2100 m and ~2550 m a.s.l., respectively. The former vent fed mild strombolian activity and lava flows, while the latter represented the main explosive vent, producing strong phreato-magmatic explosions. Explosions at this latter vent, however, shifted to a strombolian style in the following days, before switching back to phreato-magmatic activity towards the end of the eruption, which ended on August 9, 2001. On August 3, a small seismoacoustic array was deployed close to the eruptive vents. The array was composed of three stations, which recorded seismic and infrasonic waves coming from both of the eruptive vents. A further seismoacoustic station, equipped with a thermal-infrared sensor, was also installed several kilometers north of the first array. Seismic signals relating to the strombolian activity at the 2100-m vent were characterized by a strong decompression at the source. Analysis of the time delays between seismic, infrasonic and infrared event onsets also revealed that ejection velocities during explosions from both vents were subsonic. Time delays between the onset of explosive events apparent in the infrared and infrasound data indicated that the explosion source at the 2550-m vent was located 220–250 m below the crater rim. In comparison, the depth of the seismic source was estimated to be between 230 and 335 m below the rim. This converts to 120–150 and 130–235 m below the preexisting ground surface. In addition, time delays between seismic and infrasonic signals recorded for the lower (2100 m) vent also revealed a seismic source that was no more than a few tens of meters deeper than the fragmentation surface.
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