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Authors: Rizzo, A.* 
Aiuppa, A.* 
Capasso, G.* 
Grassa, F.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
Longo, M.* 
Carapezza, M. L.* 
Editors: Calvari, S. 
Inguaggiato, S. 
Puglisi, G. 
Title: The 5 April 2003 paroxysm at Stromboli: a review of geochemical observations
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2008
Keywords: paroxysm
geochemical observations
thermal aquifer
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: This paper reviews the published geochemical variations observed during the 2002–2003 eruption at Stromboli volcano. At the end of 2002, a new eruption began at Stromboli with a lava flow that lasted until the end of July 2003. On 5 April 2003 an explosive paroxysm occurred with the ejection of bombs that reached the village of Ginostra, about 4 km from the craters. During the eruption, specific variations in chemical composition of ground waters and summit fumaroles were recorded before the explosion, most of them for the first time. The water pH decreased significantly (0.5 units) and the dissolved CO2 increased in two thermal wells (Cusolito and Zurro) located near Stromboli harbor from March until 5 April. Peaks in the dissolved He were also observed at all the sampling sites. All of these changes in the thermal aquifer suggested a pressurization of the system due to the degassing of a volatile-rich magma at depth. In the summit area the SO2/HCl and SO2/HF ratios in the plume increased suddenly between 1 and 3 April due to the degassing of an S-rich magma that was approaching the shallow levels of the plumbing system, and this was involved in the explosion that occurred a few days later. This eruption was the first at Stromboli to be analyzed using geochemical models. The variations observed in the basal aquifer and in the summit area occurred on very different timescales: a few weeks and few days, respectively.
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